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Breast-conserving surgery implies removal of the breast cancer zone ...
Obesity is responsible for 5 to 13% of all-cause deaths around the world.
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Cardiologic procedures performed with electrophysiological studies
Electrophysiological study (EPS) is an interventional test used for diagnosing arrhythmia, which is the rhythm disorder of heart. In this procedure, electrodes are advanced into the heart through intravenous access and intracardiac electrical records are obtained. The heart is externally stimulated with a device and the electrical responses the heart gives to the stimulants are assessed and rhythm disorders can be diagnosed.
Electrophysiological study should not be performed at the initial stage of diagnosing arrhythmia. The procedure should be utilized when other diagnostic methods such as ECG, holter monitoring or event recorders are insufficient and/or to understand the mechanism of arrhythmia that require treatment.
Ablation is a method used in treatment of arrhythmia. The procedure commonly referred as “burning” treatment.
In ablation procedure, the aim is to eliminate the focus that causes arrhythmia in the heart using various energies with a special electrode or balloon catheter advanced into the heart through intravenous access. For ablation procedures, depending on the cause of arrhythmia, radiofrequency (RF), cautery or cryofreezing energy types may be utilized.
Pacemakers are devices used for treatment of arrhythmias which cause slowing in cardiac rhythm. Pacemakers are placed in the ribcage below the collarbone in close proximity to the shoulder below skin and muscles. Pacemaker electrodes are placed in the related cardiac chamber through the vein originating from the arm and extending into the heart, which are then connected to the generator.
All pacemakers are basically comprised of 2 parts; generator and electrode. Depending on the specifications of the pacemakers, one or more electrodes may be required. Generator is a device in which a battery producing energy, a circuit regulating function of the battery and connection port of the electrodes are combined in a box. Electrodes are cables that enable connection between the pacemaker and the heart.
Pacemakers can be taken into two main groups. Those are:
In addition to features of conventional permanent pacemakers; these devices are used in treatment of potentially lethal arrhythmia, may eliminate rapid arrhythmia with specialized maneuvers (ATP: Anti-tachycardia pace) and apply shock treatment. These devices are utilized in treatment of patients with histories of previous cardiac arrest or arrhythmia which may lead to cardiac arrest (ventricular tachycardia, etc.) or patients who are under risk of such conditions. While sizes of ICD devices vary depending on brand and model, they measure approximately between 30 and 50 cc and 60 and 90 grams.
These devices are used in treatment of patients with heart failure, lowered heart functions and certain problems related to conduction system of the heart, such as left branch block or intraventricular conduction delay. In addition to features of pacemakers and ICD devices, the devices can be utilized for treating heart failure concomitantly with other treatments for eligible patients. The devices contain three electrodes.
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