Types, Signs, Diagnosis and Treatment Methods of Colitis

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Types, Signs, Diagnosis and Treatment Methods of Colitis

There are different types of colitis disease which is manifested by various signs...

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There are different types of colitis disease which is manifested by various signs, such as abdominal pain, blood in stool, constipation, loss of appetite, weight loss, rectal bleeding, nausea, vomiting, fever and flatulence. Therefore, it is critical to plan the treatment in line with the type of disease and patient characteristics. Assoc. Prof. Muharrem Taşkoparan from Gastroenterology Department of Güven Hospital informs about the colitis.

What is colitis?

Colitis is an inflammatory disease of colon. It implies inflamed mucosa – lining - of the colon due to the response to microbes or other hazardous stimuli and it causes ulceration in colon. It may be acute or chronic. Most common type is “ulcerative colitis”.

Who are at risk of colitis and what is the prevalence?

Colitis can be seen in every age group depending on its reason. However, ulcerative colitis is more common at 15 to 30 years of age. Incidence is equal for men and women. It may be inherited. It may be seen in close relatives and children of patients.

Is colitis a contagious disease?

There are infectious and non-infectious types of colitis. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are not contagious in nature. It cannot spread to relatives and children of the patient.

What are causes of colitis?

Although the causes vary depending on the type of colitis, most cases are secondary to inflammation of colon due to viruses, harmful bacteria or parasites. Some colonic diseases may also lead to colitis. Poor blood supply to colon or allergic reactions may also cause colitis.

What are types of colitis?

• Ulcerative colitis

• Crohn’s Disease

• Microscopic colitis

• Allergic colitis

• Infectious Colitis

• Pseudomembranous colitis secondary to use of antibiotic agents

• Ischemic colitis

• Radiation colitis which may occur due to side-effects of radiotherapy

How can colitis be recognized? What are the symptoms?

Primary symptoms of colitis can be listed as abdominal pain, blood and mucus in stool, constipation, loss of appetite, weight loss, rectal bleeding, nausea, vomiting, fever and flatulence.

How is diagnosis of colitis made?

Gastroenterologist makes a physical examination after patient specifies complaints and medical history is obtained. Blood and stool tests as well as inflammation profile are reviewed. And colonoscopy is performed in most cases to reach a result. The colon is examined with colonoscopy and a piece of colonic tissue is biopsied, when necessary, and finally, the diagnosis is made.

What are treatment options for colitis?

A patient-centered treatment is planned depending on the type of colitis. Medical treatments are applied.

How should nutrition be in treatment of colitis?

Nutrition plans of colitis patients may vary depending on the type and cause of colitis. Although nutrition is not the cause of intestinal diseases, certain foods may trigger the exacerbation or aggravate the symptoms. These triggers are personal in nature and there is no universal type of food or drink which worsens the symptoms of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease.


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