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Breast-conserving surgery implies removal of the breast cancer zone ...
Obesity is responsible for 5 to 13% of all-cause deaths around the world.
In vitro fertilization implies fertilizing the ovum of the female subject with the sperm of the male subject at laboratory settings.
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Recently, one of the most interesting advancements in plastic surgery is fat injection.
Previously, it has been considered that fat injections are applied for filling purposes only.
However, studies show that the fat tissue is the richest source with respect to adult stem cells. These stem cells replace missing cell types and repair damaged cells. For instance, when the fat is injected to the mid face for filling purposes, stem cells change into fibroblasts, start to produce collagen and provide skin rejuvenation. Fat tissues are processed and purified; the number of stem cells is increased. They can be used for the breasts, hip, leg aesthetic and any body part with tissue loss as well as the face. Fat injections yield successful outcomes not only for aesthetic surgery but also for non-healing wounds and irradiated skin.
One of the significant aging changes in the face is soft tissue loss. This condition is severe particularly in the periorbital area and mid face. Also, subcutaneous tissues become more fragile and the skin becomes thin. Nasojugal grooves, nose-lip lines and Marionette lines become deeper. Fat injections can be performed for patients who are middle-aged or older with poor facial appearance. Also, the facial contours can be improved with fat injections in patients with flattened midface, receding chin and weak jaw line.
The most common facial areas treated with fat injection are the foreheads, periorbital areas, upper eyelids, suborbital areas, mid-face, upper malar bones, nasojugal grooves, nose-lip lines, Marionette lines, lips, chin tip and contours of lower jaw bone.
There are two effects of fat injections. The first one is filling effect, while the second one is regenerative effect. Living fat cells and new cells generated from stem cells in the relevant region provide filling effect. Facial contours improve and deep lines are filled through this effect. Malar bones, lips, chin tip and jaw contours improve with this effect. Eyebrow margins improve and periorbital area is enhanced. Regenerative effect is given by stem cells. They turn into missing connective tissue elements and fibroblasts and increase the production of collagen. The skin is rejuvenated and refreshed. Thin skin improves, dry skin is moisturized and the wrinkles and spots regress.
Fat tissue is removed from any part of the body using fine cannulas and syringes. Obtained fat is purified through centrifugation or filtering. It is injected into the relevant facial areas using thin cannulas with blunt tips.
Facial fat injections are performed under sedation at the operating theatre; generally, general anesthesia is not required. fat injections do no cause pain. Mostly, patients complain of swelling and bruising. Patients are usually discharged to home on the same day. Minimal swelling and bruising may persist for the first two days. To alleviate these conditions, cold pack is necessarily applied. Patients can go outside with glasses the next day. Bruises and swellings regress after Day 3 and largely disappear at the end of Week 1. If bruise is visible, it can be covered with makeup. The face largely gains its natural appearance approximately 3 weeks later. As the case for all surgical interventions, sun protection is important in postoperative period.
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