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The kidneys where urine is produced...
The kidneys where urine is produced and canal system that ensures the removal of urine from the body are called urinary system in short. The urinary system consists of two kidneys (right and left kidneys), ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs weighing 140-160 g. Very small units, called nephron, produce urine. The produced urine flows into the bladder through the ureter. When urine collects in the bladder and the bladder capacity is sufficient, urine is removed out the body via the urethra.
There are many causes of a stone formation. There are many chemical substances in the urine. Certain substances in the urine increase the risk of the stone formation, while the others prevent the stone formation. For some individuals, such risky substances may enter the body from the outside or our body may produce them excessively. In this case, sediment deposition occurs in the urine and stones may develop. Moreover, the inhibitors that reduce the stone formation may be scarce in some individuals, thus the risk of the stone formation may increase.
Mostly, we cannot identify the underlying cause of the stone formation.
The accumulation of large amounts of sand-like sediment in the urine results in high risk of the stone formation.
The risk of the stone formation is higher in the industrialized countries. It is believed that diet has great impact on the stone formation. As income per capita increases, eating habits change. The consumption of fatty foods, protein foods and sugary foods increases. The amount of fibers and vegetable proteins in diet decrease. Also, the consumption of high-sodium foods (salty foods) is another important factor that increases the risk of the stone formation.
The effect of occupation on stone formation has been demonstrated. The risk of stone formation is higher in individuals who perform less physical activity and who work in high temperatures.
If family history is notable for stone, the risk of stone formation increases by two folds in first degree relatives. Besides, the risk of stone formation is high in some hereditary diseases (renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hypercalciuria).
The possibility of kidney stone formation increases in warm climates and in summer secondary to sweating and insufficient fluid intake.
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