In Vitro Fertilization Glossary

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In Vitro Fertilization Glossary


FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone); a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that ensures maturation of follicle in women and spermatogenesis in men.

A gamete implies male or female reproductive cell. These are eggs and sperms.

GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone): A hormone that is secreted by brain and regulates the pituitary gland.

HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin): A hormone secreted by embryo and used to diagnose pregnancy.

Hemophilia: A type of bleeding disorder. A disease characterized with inability to stop bleeding.

Hyperstimulation: Over-reaction of ovaries by hormones while ovaries are stimulated. In this case, ovaries enlarge and cysts develop.

Pituitary gland: A secretory gland that is located immediately beneath the brain and regulates most internal secretory glands.

Hysterosalpingography: An imaging modality that provides details about internal structure of the uterus and the Fallopian tubes.

HMG (Human Menopausal Gonadotropin): A medicine that contains FSH and LH to stimulate ovaries.

ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection): Injecting a sperm into an egg. It is also called microinjection.

Implantation: Implies adherence of embryo to endomentrial cells in the uterus and initiation of the pregnancy.

Infertile: A human who cannot achieve conception or cause failed conception of the spouse in a particular interval.

Infertility: Failure or lack of conception despite regular sexual intercourse of the couple with no contraceptive method for a year.

Incubator: A special cabinet, where the embryo is culture, temperature is maintained close to the body temperature and contains carbon dioxide at particular concentration.

Insemination: Implies inseminating the sperm into the womb or placing the sperm nearby the egg in order to achieve fertilization.

IVF (In Vitro Fertilization); Fertilization outside of the body.

Gynecologist; A doctor specialized in diseases and health of women.

Catheter: A thin, plastic tube that is used to place sperm and embryo.

Conception: A new creature arising out of the egg of female fertilized by the sperm of the male.

Cordocentesis: Taking a piece of tissue from the umbilical cord of fetus for examination.

Corpus luteum: The tissue differentiating from the follicle that leaves after the ovulation.

Chromosome: Genetic codes that are found in nucleus of each cell and ensure genetic inheritance. A human has 46 chromosomes.

Cryopreservation: A method used to freeze and store embryo.

Culture medium: A fluid that ensures growth of embryo at laboratory settings.

Laparoscopy: A surgical method used to visualize the abdominal cavity.

LH (Luteinizing Hormone): A hormone secreted by pituitary that ensures ovulation.

Masturbation: Self-stimulation to eject sperm.

Menopause: Pause of menses.

Micromanipulation: Methods used to place the sperm into the egg. Microinjection is the most common one of those techniques.

Microinjection: Injection the sperm into the egg.

Molecular biology: A branch of science dealing with intracellular structures.

Morphology: Determining shape and dimensions of sperm.

Oligospermia: Abnormally low count of sperm in ejaculate.

Oocyte: The female egg, female gamete.

Occyte pick-up: Implies harvesting eggs from ovarian follicles. A needle is inserted into the follicle and the fluid and the egg are suctioned out.

Ovary: A female reproductive organ.

Ovulation: Implies release of eggs that are mature enough for ovulation.

Estradiol: A female hormone secreted by follicle and corpus luteum.

Estrogen: It is principally produced in ovaries. The production starts with puberty and continues until menopause. It is also responsible for development of secondary sex characters.

PESA Percutaneous epidydimal sperm aspiration

Pipette: A thin glass or plastic tube.

Polycystic ovary disease: Formation of multiple small cysts in the ovary.

Polyspermia: An egg fertilized by more than one sperm.

Post-coital test: Examination of cervical fluid and the sperm ejaculated there after the intercourse.

Progesterone: A hormone secreted by corpus luteum.

Pronuclei: Nuclei that contain 23 chromosomes. One includes female chromosomes, while the other contains male chromosomes.

Semen: The umbrella term for the sperm and the fluid that comprise the ejaculate during the orgasm.

Semen Analysis: Implies determining number per millimeter, shape and motility of fresh sperm under microscope.

Serum: The fluid after blood is separated.

Cervix: This inferior part of the uterus protrudes into the vagina and enlarges while baby passes through the delivery.

Cycle: A time elapsing from Day 1 of menstruation to the initiation of the next menstruation. It takes approximately 28 days in human.

Sperm: Male reproductive cells.

Sperm bank: A place, where healthy sperms are frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen.

Sperm canals: Implies canals that sperms swim through and extend from testis to glans penis.

Spermatogenesis: Formation of sperm

Sterile: A human who will never have a baby.

TESA: Testicular Sperm Aspiration

TESE: Testicular Sperm Extraction

Teratozoospermia: Implies dominancy of sperms with morphological disorder.

Testis: It refers two male reproductive organs. They are found in a sac and produce the male sex hormone, testosterone, and the sperm, the male reproductive cell.

Testosterone: Male reproductive hormone.

In vitro fertilization: One of assisted reproductive techniques that ensure growth of embryo outside of the body.

Ultrasound: Visualizing internal organs using sound waves

Uterus: A muscular reproductive organ, the womb, that protects and feeds the embryo for growth.

Urologist: A doctor specialized in male urinary tract and genital disease.

ARTC: Assisted Reproductive Technologies Center

Varicocele: Enlargement of testicular vessels.

Viability: Determining the viability of the sperm.

Viscosity: The state of being sticky

Ovarian stimulation: Administering GnRh analogues, hMG and hCG to produce more than one egg.

Zygote: Early developmental phase of embryo.

Zona pellucid: A membrane covering the outer surface of the egg; the sperm penetrates into this membrane and ensures fertilization. This membrane should be peeled off in order to have the embryo implant into the uterus.

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