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It is a sign rather than a disease.


Balance is a complex mechanism that involves interpretation of information transmitted by the vestibular system (inner ear) and the somatosensorial system along with visual information by the central nervous system followed by sending necessary stimuli to the musculoskeletal system. Any abnormality in any portion of this organization is manifested by a sensation of spinning or dizziness. The organ of balance is primarily responsible for the balance and it is located in the inner ear. The organ of hearing and the organ of balance are located nearby in the inner ear. Therefore, a disease that involves one of these organs may also involve the other one.

Vertigo derives from a Latin word “vertere” that means “to turn”. It is, briefly, defined as transmission of wrong stimuli from the balance system or improper perception of correct stimuli. It is a sign rather than a disease. The inner ear is the organ that is primarily responsible for the balance. Moreover, postural balance requires sound cooperation of eyes, joints, muscles, brain and spinal cord. Vertigo emerges in diseases that affect these organs.

The most common one is Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo that originates from the inner ear. It is manifested by severe sensation of spinning that is provoked by movements of the head. The vertigo is triggered by lying down, getting outside the bed, bending forward and looking upside. The condition is colloquially called destruction of crystals and this type of vertigo can be managed with a series of maneuvers that help proper positioning of the crystals rather than medications. Vertigo may also be caused by other diseases that are dealt by ENT, Neurology, Ophthalmology, Internal Medicine and Cardiology departments. Treatment is planned by relevant department in the light of examinations and tests.

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